Transverse Thermoelectrics—A Route to more Efficient Energy Conversion

The principal challenges in current thermoelectric power generation modules are the availability of stable, diffusion-resistant, lossless electrical and thermal metal–semiconductor contacts that do not degrade at the hot end nor cause reductions in device efficiency. Transverse thermoelectric devices, in which a thermal gradient in a single material induces a perpendicular voltage, promise to overcome these problems.