Epitaxial growth of large area WSe2 monolayers by gas source chemical vapor deposition

Monolayer 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been a focus of increasing interest due to their unique properties but the development of device technologies has been hampered by difficulties in synthesizing large area monolayer and few layer films. We developed a multi-step process involving nucleation, ripening and preferential lateral growth to achieve epitaxial WSe2 monolayers on sapphire by gas source chemical vapor deposition. This process enables control of the nucleation density of WSe2 on the sapphire and the lateral growth rate of domains resulting in coalescence of monolayer regions over wafer-scale areas with minimal multilayer growth. The process also provides insights into the fundamental kinetic and thermodynamic factors that impact monolayer growth.