Molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE)

MBE of any 11 of 62 elements at one time and refills without breaking chamber vacuum

Tsub < 1000 °C
Poxidant < 10–5 Torr

oxidant can be O2, ~10% O3 (output of ozone generator), or ~80% O3 (distilled ozone)

with in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM), multi-beam optical stress sensor (MOSS), real-time band-edge temperature (BandiT) measurement, quadrupole mass spectrometer

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